assuming without admitting- or admitting and assuming?

A response To Tonyboy of the Office Of The Mayor- Bulan


Thank you for the kudos and for reading things about Bulan. And I’m glad to know that our mayor is open-minded and that she reads things that concern Bulan and her constituents. It’s always an advantage for her  to listen so she knows what is in the hearts of her “manga padaba”- ( am I one of those? ). Padaba or not,  Bulan Observer is created for all of us Bulanians to share our views and concerns for our town. It is relatively young but has already attracted many people who are watching our town. No matter how it came into being, the main purpose of Bulan Observer is to connect us Bulanians and not just to entertain ourselves but to reflect seriously about matters that concern the present and future form of Bulan. It’s for the people of Bulan and I just function as the administrator to see to it that things do not run wild. 

This Bulan Terminal case is the point of departure between  the good or bad political De Castro and of a concerned or just a personally-motivated critic Guyala. This is the thorn that pains everybody in Bulan- as long as it is not yet cleared. I’ve read and heard all interviews with Mr. Guyala and the  De Castros pertaining to this case as well as comments from people of Bulan. It is imperative to have a balanced view of the matter, and since it’s now in the court, we just wait and see. There is nothing else to talk about it at the moment but rather focus on the business of running our town efficiently and of solving the basic problems facing our people.

Tonyboy, I suggest you better admitt that vote-buying is a practice in the Philippines and then assume that the people may assume without admitting that they forgive and forget as long as the “elected (?) is trying his/her best to be a public servant even if the means by which he/she has been elected to office are not so moral”.  You assumed yourself, “Yes, that can be possible”. I believe you because you are experienced in this area . But even then, we might rightly say that though this is possible it is still not a thing we can be proud of. It is considered though a strength  of us Filipinos that if we cannot solve the problem, we just accept and live with it. We know, however, that this same strength is also what hinders us to move forward. The Philippines is not a safe place for people in the government, guilty or not, to declare that they did not resort to vote-buying. The best way is either you just don’t talk about it anymore, try and prove your best once in office or get out of politics. Indeed it is possible  to forgive them for the not-so-moral means (vote-buying, extortions, etc.) of getting to their public office- for everybody knows it anyway and things like that are “normal” in our nation. Unlike Japan for instance, we do not have a legislation that’s designed to punish vote-buying political candidate. It’s practiced by our national politicians (see Arroyo ) so the local ones are forced to follow. Moral or not, the main problem is that once they’re in office, it’s their turn then to get back the money they paid to the people before or during election day. It could be that not all are doing this but still  here we are again back to the vicious cycle of poverty and impoverished political system. That’s the logic of greed: It gives in order to get back more than it has given. The result is a sick nation, a dead town.

All the time we have always been mentioning the word opposition. Opposition is such a noble denotation, coming from the latin word “opponere”, which means to counter or to resist. In politics the opposition has the duty to criticise and above all offer alternatives to that which the government has opted to undertake. But strictly speaking, there is no opposition in Bulan for they are not represented in the administration. The Guyalas are just political foes in our local traditional politics and though they oppose by watching and criticizing every move of the De Castros, they are, strictly speaking no opposition party, for they have no people (seat) to represent them legally in the government of the De Castros. To be critical and yet responsible political foes however, they ought to separate definitions and start to work with the government when it comes to things that the whole town will benefit. Otherwise, a political foe or so called critic that only criticises, only on the look out for mistakes but refuses to work wit the government in situations where everyone’s help is being called for or to offer help for people’s sake is standing partly apart from the people. The people of Bulan should sharpen their senses so that they may rightly distinguish a constructive from an obstructive critical stand towards the local government. An obstructive opposition has at its nucleus the motive of revenge, therefore, it has no place in a town that’s fighting for progress.

We acknowledge that the De Castros are a strong political family in Bulan. I myself spent my elementary years under a De Castro ( Luis? ) mayor. But  I think he was shot in his office one afternoon by another mayor from another town. A young boy that I was, I was enraged to hear about the incident that somebody killed our mayor just that! I don’t remember the details anymore. But the name De Castro has always been a big name to me so as Ginete, Gonzales…

And there  is no doubt that after over a decade of governing Bulan, the De Castros have also done good things to our town and to the people, or also have thought good thoughts  for the people of Bulan. For other things done not palpable, maybe they have  informed the people about such things very little. Nowadays, informations travel almost at the speed of light. A good or bad thing done is instantly  known in all corners of the world. So we expect that the De Castro government should be as communicative and open as possible. This will do  them good. When the doors are open we will come in to help spread any good news. Our town people are willing to help when it’s for their own welfare- and also to oppose when it’s for their own  welfare. But the government has no other option but to be concerned about the welfare of the people, never to oppose the people.

It is fair to admit that nobody from this site ever declared that the people De Castros are the meanest people. It is not right to attack people personally, but is legitimate to criticise the  political De Castros. These are two distinct attributes. We never hate anybody personally, in fact we love and respect all of our townmates as people.

Yes, prudence is needed in judging, and for christians like us to judge is allowed. Though the popular verse “Judge not, that ye be not judged ” Matthew 7:1, seems to be contradicting my statement. But seen in the whole context, i.e. Matthew 7: 1-5, judging is allowed after you have first judged yourself. Take note that the word “judge”  is mentioned about 700 times in the Bible, one  book alone is titled “Judges”, written when God had chosen judges to lead  ( like mayors of to-day) HIS people.  And consider this verse: “Seek good, and not evil, that ye may live: and so the LORD, the God of hosts, shall be with you, as ye have spoken. Hate the evil, and love the good, and establish judgment in the gate: it may be that the LORD God of hosts will be gracious unto the remnant of Joseph.” (Amos 5:14-15) . Therefore, it is in fact a sin not to make use of our sense of judgement of good and evil, of right and wrong ( see atty. benji’s a call for moral revolution?). So the biblical justification.

Now, from our  common sense. Imagine Tonyboy if during election time, nobody has the right to judge a presidential or mayoral candidate! To quote you, “what the heck are we here for ? It would be chaos”. Chaos has been with us for a long time already. The political mess in our country is actually partly the result of our many  people’s loss of capacity to judge because of the long  vote-buying tradition in our country, a fact you can really just admitt and can really just assume the people had already internalized and “legalized” it. To generalize is wrong, but against this widespread, culturally-embedded vote-buying  and selling  practice in our country, it’s like blowing in the wind for some remaining righteous politicians to declare innocence. Nobody would just believe them anymore. I do not deny that there are such politicians but mostly they do not get the office. But again, not all who don’t get the office were righteous during the campaign. The sense of political judgment has been taken away from the Filipinos long ago. Generally, this leads us back again to the problem of moral corruption which is,  to quote you again, “a very contentious issue, we can debate and argue, this blog will not suffice. Sorry po”. For me the facts about vote-buying, graft and corruption speak for themselves. There is nothing contentious about this issue. Bulan Observer’s storing capacity limit is more than enough if we don’t argue about things already obvious, but you are right, maybe this would not suffice if we keep on arguing they do not exist.

You seem to be anticipating attacks  when you say “expect me to defend my Boss Mayor De Castro.” No one in Bulan who has done nothing unconstitutional/illegal should worry about defending him/herself against criticism. You are duty bound to protect your employer, as we are also duty bound to defend our mayor should  she met with unjust criticism. My only freedom is that I can even speak in defense of other things that are  in you which concerns Bulan about which you have probably no more this freedom to speak due to your position.

 In any case, let’s move forward.


jun asuncion

Bulan Observer


“God gave each individual reason and a will of his or her own to distinguish the just from the unjust; all were born without shackles and free, and nobody has a right to subjugate the will and spirit of another.” J. P. Rizal in “A Letter To The Young Women Of Malolos”.



Filed under Bulan Eco-Park, Over a Cup of Coffee, Politics, Views and Concern

6 responses to “assuming without admitting- or admitting and assuming?

  1. attybenji

    In my previous comment, I claimed that vote buying was massive and widespread in Bulan and other parts of the country during and every elections, (it is still my conviction as of today) and I even sworn to the law of nature saying that may the lighting and thunder strike me mortally if I am not telling the truth, or else “ipapautod ko an guramoy” ko kun deri totoo an mga sinasabi ko.

    The truth is – vote buying is massive and nobody can deny it. That’s a practice in the Philippines every elections (as I said only the deaf, mute and blind may claim otherwise). I even affirmed and claimed that vote-buying is a matter of JUDICIAL NOTICE already in the country.

    I may be faulted for generalizing the allegations, perhaps, shall I say, my sir Tonyboy is the only exception, (or maybe out of the 100 candidates for example, only 8 are not guilty) as he claimed, he did not spend money to buy or bribe voters to vote for him, I would believe so, but still we cannot deny nor rebuff the fact that vote-buying has not taken place during the election in Bulan or elsewhere.

    Do we need proof for the people or readers to believe this assumption? No Need, because vote buying or vote selling is already a matter of judicial notice. Meaning to say, even without the introduction of proof/s they are of public knowledge na. The test is whether the fact involved is so notoriously known as to make it proper to assume its existence without proof. Since, vote buying is of public knowledge already its existence can be assumed even without proof. (or assuming without admitting?)

    With all due respect, – it is very hard for us to admit that vote buying has indeed taken place in Bulan or elsewhere in the country, especially so if we are duty bound to defend the person in power. As the saying goes “the truth hurts”. As in, “masakit ang pag-amin sa katotohanan”!

    Even granting for the sake of argument that vote buying has taken place thereof, without admitting, hehehe, but still the fact remains all of us, registered or unregistered voters, must have known that vote buying is actually happening during and every elections, (local or national one).

    Sir Tony Boy, ex-municipal councilor, may not engaged in vote buying himself, as he claimed he did not, I believe so, but perhaps he is the living witness/testimony as to how vote-buying/vote selling is being undertaken left and right, days or nights before the election day (sa administration, opposition o independent parareho nagbabarakal sin boto).

    In relation to vote buying issue, I recall a case of Mayor Binay of Makati many years ago, he was then prosecuted for vote buying, after the trial, the court dismissed his case for failure of the prosecution to prove beyond reasonable doubt that he is guilty of the election offense (i.e., vote buying), despite rampant or massive vote buying on P1,500.oo per voter, he was exonerated not because he did not commit the crime, but he was exonerated or acquitted for alleged insufficiency of evidence. Why? Because according to the court, the prosecution failed to present the O.R., or any form of receipt/s showing that indeed voters have received money/cash from mayor Binay’s camp.

    Again, for failure of the prosecutor to present proof, he was acquitted. Do you think Binay did not engage in vote buying? I doubt. Kay nano may resibo an pagbakal san boto…

    Actually, vote-buying is a symptom of a serious illness which undermines democracy in the Philippines. The issue at stake is indeed that of people’s participation in policy-making. The right to take part in the government of one’s country either directly or through freely chosen representatives can only be enjoyed if: 1) people are free; and 2) there is dialogue with the representatives.

    And, For example, or by way of analogy to the premise assuming without admitting. I have been appearing in court hearings almost every other day. It pains me every time the suspect/accused, who was caught en-flagrante delictu, or while in the act of committing the crime by the police officer/s, and during the arraignment proceeding where the complaint or information is read in open court, the presiding judge would ask the accused, what is your plea? Not Guilty your Honor! Here, despite overwhelming evidence against him/her, the latter has the courage to deny the accusation in open court under oath, being the culprit himself/herself. (as if assuming without admitting that he commits the crime?)

    Another example of a case in point, re, the premises assuming without admitting. This is a little bit hilarious, hehehe, I would recall a case in our barrio many years ago, a certain tata Inggo raped the hen of his neighbor (though there is actually no crime of rape against chicken to speak of), but just the same, tata Inggo ravished the hen and as a result of which the hen died after 5 minutes of painful ordeal from the hands of tata Inggo. When he was interrogated by the barangay Captain, as a suspect, he easily replied, “I am Not Guilty”, deri ko tabi ni-rape an umagak kay natuturog ako san mga oras na yun. As nobody in the neighborhood could personally point an accusing finger against tata Inggo as to whether he is the culprit and the subject of the investigation by mere allegation and accusation only sans direct proof. Now, for lack of proof/evidence, he would have been exonerated by the barangay Captain. Deri mao tabi?

    The twist: before the barangay Captain would end-up the investigation as he is already inclined to believe that indeed tata Inggo did not ravish or abuse the hen. Before banging the gavel, the brgy. Captain politely asked tata Inggo to kindly take-off his pants. Believe me, when tata Inggo pushed his zipper down, Bigla Nagrakadag an ipot san manok hali sa brief ni Tata Inggo.

    Question: Nano tabi an inhihimo san ipot san manok sa brief ni tata Inggo kun deri niya ni-rape an umagak?

    Had not the brgy. Captain requested tata Inggo, for the last time, to take-off his pants. The categorical denial of tata Inggo would be affirmed as truth in itself as if he is not guilty of the crime.

    What is the point that I am trying to drive at – is that not all denials should be affirmed or believed to be as truth! – assuming without admitting?

    Truly, in the last Barangay election in Bulan and elsewhere, makagigirabo tabi dahil mismo sa may kalsada or within the 100-meter radius from the polling precinct hayagan an barakalan san boto, P50.oo para sa Kapitan, an Kagawad naman P10.oo o P20.oo otherwise kun deri ka mahatag wara ka sin makukuwa na boto. Sa may kankungan an rabas mo. Deri nato ine pwede negaran na realidad san vote-buying kada election!

    The Philippine election reality is – voters from Class D and E – those unemployed, hangers on, and sycophants – for them, election, is their chance to leech blood from politicians. Millions of them repeatedly troop to politicians and juiced them with such basics as; meals, burial expenses, bridges, artesian wells, basketball court and dole outs, for which politicians can’t say no, lest they can be construed as unsympathetic to people’s needs, and ground to loose their votes. Sorry to say, but politicians during election becomes a witting hostage. But soon after election, it’s payback time, because it’s the people now who will be hostage of the politician’s whims and caprices.

    Politicians are not stupid, of course (i’m not generalizing here, batu-bato sa langit). Remuneration for the position they coveted are miniscule. The only way they can recoup their investment is through corruption, by way of their assumed power, privileges, perks, and influence. Discreet or brazen their corruption is, it doesn’t matter: because, for politicians, everyone has a price. And as they accumulate wealth to buy more people out, they build their fiefdom. They will protect this little kingdom with blood, if it needs be. This “vicious cycle” of vote-buying and vote-selling, perpetuates the evil of corruptions, the victim of which is the nation. And it trickles down to its citizens, who bear the brunt. Whose fault is it anyway?

    On the other hand- Politicians of mature western democracies, in general, don’t spend their own money when running for office. They fund raise for their political expenses from their constituents. If their constituents believe the politician is an asset to the political party which can bring positive changes to their lives, their constituents wouldn’t hesitate to support. Then the political party, to which the politician belongs, provides the machinery.

    Corollary, again another example of an actual case in Bicol: I have a classmate (Atty. DB) who, after passing the bar exams, he ran for the position of vice mayor in one of the towns in the province of Albay, and he won. The remuneration for vice mayor is around Php19,000.00 more or less, and believe me guys, as vice mayor, he is spending for his constituencies more than quadruple of what he is receiving as salary. (i.e., Gastos sa pagNinong sa Kasal, Ninong sa paBunyag, Limos sa Tigbak, Donasyon sa Fiestas, Financial Assistance sa Pobre, Donasyon sa paBarayle san mga Kadaragahan y Kasulteruhan, Medical/Hospital assistance sa Pasyente na nagDedilerio, etc. etc. etc.) I know him to be a righteous guy. After serving for two consecutive terms, he finally called it quits, saying kun deri ako maudong sin kakandidato maabot an panahon baka mas maging pobre pa ako sa sayo na iraga. Pagdukot ko sa bulsa ubos an kwarta ko para ihahatag sa mga tawo na nag-aayo sin danon. Batog na Aga, Hapon nan Gab-i may bisita sa balay, mapakape o mapamerienda ka pa, pero an mga bata ko deri ko mahatagan sin balon sa eskwela para pang merienda o pamasahe. Minsan sulu-sulo daw siya sa kwarto naghihibi siya kay permi sira naghihiran san asawa niya kay apisar na vice mayor siya, mala kay siya ugang an pobrehon wara kwarta san kadadanon sa mga tawo.

    Question: Did he also engage in vote-buying when he ran for vice mayor many years back? Yes he did, sabi niya it’s normal practice, otherwise, ayaw na pag-iisip sin pag-entra sa politika kun deri ka mabakal sin boto.

    This classmate of mine (Atty. DB) has died a couple of years ago, may his soul rest in peace.

    NB: Kun deri ka makurakot sa pwesto baka sa masunod na election wara ka na perak na gagastuson (again, i’m not generalizing here, kay exempted an mga vice governors, bokals, vice mayors o councilors dahil deri man sira an may poder sa pag-disburse san pundo san municipio o probinsya)

    That is the reality of Philippine politics. Makulog ugang an ulo nato sin kaiisip! hehehe

  2. Is vote buying for real?

    I have been specializing in the science of campaign management and have been conducting research on elections so I am confident I can answer the question and participate in the discussions. 🙂

    First, vote buying comes in many forms and is conducted not only a day before (ultima hora) or during the elections but also immediately after the proclamation of winners. So kung tinawan kan sarong pulitiko an botante ki sarong stick na sigarilyo, puwede na yan apudon na vote-buying. Nata? Dahil by implication nag-aagad pabor an pulitiko na pag-abot sa balota an ngaran niya an isurat. Kaya lang, wara pa akong nababasang desisyon kan Supreme Court manungod sa vote-buying dahil an ley ta bako na malinaw dai pa naiimplementar na tunay.

    Second, posible kaya na warang vote buying o dai mag-resort sa vote-buying an sarong pulitiko? Sabi ni Tonyboy, posible. This is also my experience with some of the clients I encountered. But they are rare. Kaso kaipuhan pang i-qualify. Kung base sa technical definition kan ley, bakong imposible. Pero kung pagbabasehan mo naman ang intensiyon, kan pulitiko na nagtatao, dipisil magtaram na warang intention. Ini dahil sa maski an pag-channel ki proyekto sa sarong barangay na dai man nakalaag sa development plan kan munisipyo, puwede nang apudon na vote buying.

    Third, should we blame the politicians for resorting to vote-buying? Yes, but we should also blame the vote-sellers. Warang vote-buyer kung warang vote-seller lalo na kung may pulitiko na gustong magbakal boto pero sinusumbong tulos kan mga tawo sabay file ki kaso.

    Lastly, we should also blame the supposedly guardians of morality — ang Simbahan — as they are the number one advocates of vote-buying. It’s because every election, their statement is “Ang kwarta sa bulsa, an boto sa balota”. Gustong sabihon, akuon mo lang na akuon an mga tinatao saimo kan mga pulitiko kada election. Nasa saimo na yan kun iboboto mo siya o dai. An problema sa logic na ini, kung maluya an konsensiya mo o manipis an pandok mo, mapipiritan kang iboto mo man giraray an kandidato maski dai mo gusto. Ikaduwa, an sweldo kan sarong mayor P21,000 to P27,000 kada bulan depende sa income class kan munisipyo o siyudad. Kun igwa ki 10,000 na botante an banwaan tapos tatawan ki tag P100 kada botante, an total na gagastoson sa vote-buying pa lang P1 million na. Saen ngonyan pupuroton an sarong milyon na yan? Sa sweldo? An sarong mayor na P25,000 an monthly income, makakakua lang ki nasa P300,000 sa sarong taon. Assuming na igwa siyang 13th month pay, lagpas lang na diit sa sarong milyon an makukua niya sa sarong termino (3 years). Paano pa siya makaon? O mabayad kuryente?

    Instead na “ang kuwarta sa bulsa an boto sa balota” an dapat na maging battlecry kan Simbahan, “An boto sa balota, an parabakal boto ikulong ta”.

  3. attybenji

    to j.a. carizo:

    Kun sa mga maabot tabi na panahon na mag isip ako na mag-entra sa pulitika, ika an gibuhon ko na political strategist, on a pro-bono basis… i’m just kidding, hehehe.

    You articulated that “vote buying comes in many forms and is conducted not only a day before (ultima hora) or during the elections but also immediately after the proclamation of winners. So kung tinawan kan sarong pulitiko an botante ki sarong stick na sigarilyo, puwede na yan apudon na vote-buying”. – Yes, I agree with you, that vote buying or vote selling comes in various forms based on the technical or legal definition of vote buying under the Omnibus Election Code – (1.) “Any person (candidate, political party or supporter) who gives, offers or promises money or anything of value, gives, or promises any office or employment, franchise or grant, or private or public, or makes or offers to make expenditures directly or indirectly, or cause an expenditures to be made to any person, association, corporation or community in order to induce anyone or public in general to vote for or against any candidate or withhold his vote in the election, or vote for or against any aspirant for nomination or choice of a candidate in a convention or similar selection process of a political party, x-x-x”. – I think this blog will not suffice if we are going to illustrate in details all forms of vote-buying or vote selling.

    Likewise, you stated further that “Kaya lang, wara pa akong nababasang desisyon kan Supreme Court manungod sa vote-buying dahil an ley ta bako na malinaw dai pa naiimplementar na tunay”. – Yes, that statement is also true because our court of justice is a court of record, meaning court decisions or judgments are based on record/s, not on mere speculation, allegation or accusation, thus, direct or real evidence/proof is needed to be able to render a wise judgment, that is, receipt or any other evidence relating to vote-buying is a must, but receipt/s can easily be frabricated or forged. Resultantly, for lack of sufficient evidence, sa lower court palang an kaso dismiss na, dai na makakaabot sa court of appeals or supreme court.

    Again, you said “should we blame the politicians for resorting to vote-buying? yes, but we should also blame the vote-sellers. Warang vote-buyer kung warang vote-seller lalo na kung may pulitiko na gustong magbakal boto pero sinusumbong tulos kan mga tawo sabay file ki kaso”. – I would say, this is akin to a saying “walang manloloko kung walang nagpapaloko”, he-he-he, the only problem here is “enforcement”, the police officers who are duty bound to enforce the law at all cost, without fear or favor, could not be located when their services are needed, or because they are situated somewhere else during the actual commission of the crime (i.e. vote buying), but if the people or citizens themselves are really serious to put a stop to this immoral practice of politicians and their supporters, the citizens have the right, under the law, to arrest the vote-buyer in-flagranti delictu, or better still, while actually committing the crime, such as, giving/offering bribe or money to the voter/s the night or day before the election day. As I said, under the law, a private person or citizen has the right to apprehend the law violator even without warrant of arrest provided that the offender is actually committing an offense in his presence. (see: 1997 Rules of Court, Rule 113, Section 5, A peace officer or a private person may, without a warrant of arrest, apprehend the person: (a.) When, in his presence, the person to be arrested has committed, is actually comitting or is attempting to commit an offense, x-x-x”) – this includes all kinds of election offenses.

    By virtue of aforementioned provision, the voter or citizen may, right then and there, apprehend or handcap the person who is caught in the act of bribing or offering to buy votes in favor of particular candidate/s.

    Question: Sino tabi an maisog o maurag na maaresto o maposas san mga parabakal kan boto? kun an mga kuridor ngani kan Jueteng sige lang an barasad-basad sa kalsada dai man pig-aaresto kan citizen o tawo, mao pa kaya an mga parabakal kan boto an maaresto? And, unless one is willing to be branded in the community as a superman, a living legend or a living hero, pwede niya gibuhon an pagposas san mga parabakal kan boto. In that case, I, myself, will bestow upon him/her a lifetime medal of valor (made in recto or raon, quiapo) for exhibiting extraordinary power and exemplary deed as a superman.

    Lastly, you said, instead na “ang Kuwarta sa bulsa an boto sa Balota” an dapat na maging battlecry kan Simbahan, “An boto sa Balota, an parabakal boto ikulong ta”.

    Tama ka, but maybe, I can add a little bit to this, ”an boto sa balota, an parabakal boto ikulong ta, pati an nagpapabakal kan boto rapaduhon ta kan latigo”. he-he-he

    “Warang vote-buyer kung warang vote-seller”, Tumpak tabi, as the saying goes “It takes two to dance a nice tango”.

    mabuhay ka mr. j.a carizo!

  4. Thanks, Atty. Benjie. Kun magbago na an isip mo asin gusto mo na lumaog sa pulitika, just call my name and I’ll be there maski pro-bono man yan hehehe 😉

  5. Tiger of Serengeti

    I agree with J. A. Carizo’s comments. Attybenji pasok na po kayo sa politics and I will help and personally campaign for you. I love your principles. I had been reading your opinions , articles and comments and I truly believe that we will finally have a true and compassionate Mayor. How about it? Let’s discuss this business over a cup of coffee.

  6. junasun

    To Tiger Of Serengeti and to Tigers Of Bulan,

    Readers like you prove that the people of Bulan are not sleeping! On the contrary, for though they seem to be quiet, their desire deep within for a better Bulan is still there, kicking and very much alive! There is hope then remaining in our town, which is believed by many to be a hopeless case. No, Bulan is not a hopeless case. If all of us would help one another and start focussing on our goal, it could be one of the brightiest towns in asia. This is not impossible. We only need to start now to take things seriously and to start redefining many things in Bulan, the first thing we must do if we want to move forward.

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